A Teacher's Dozen

I digged out the old workshop material in June 7, 1994, an extract from Thomas A. Angelo “A Teacher’s Dozen", Fourteen General Research-Based Principles for Improving Higher Learning In Our Classrooms" AAHE Bulletin 45(8), 3-8, April 1993. It was initiated by Jim Mellan. It is worth sharing these.

  1. Active learning is more important than passive learning.
  2. Learning is more effective and efficient when learners have explicit, reasonable goals, and when their goals fit well with the teacher’s goals.
  3. Learning requires focused attention and awareness of the importance of what is to be learned.
  4. To be remembered, new information must be meaningfully connected to prior knowledge, and it must first be remembered in order to be learned.
  5. Unlearning what is already known is often more difficult than learning new information.
  6. Information that is organized is personally meaningful ways is more likely to be remembered, learned, and used.
  7. Mastering a complex skill or body of knowledge takes great amounts of time and effort.
  8. Learning to transfer – to apply prior knowledge and skills to new contexts – requires a great deal of directed practice.
  9. High expectations encourage high achievement.
  10. To be most effective, teachers need to balance levels of intellectual challenge and instructional support.
  11. Motivation to learn is alterable: it can be positively or negatively affected by the task, the environment, the teacher, and the learner.
  12. Interaction between teachers and learners is one of the most powerful factors in promoting learning; interaction among learners is another.
  13. The ways in which learners are assessed and evaluated powerfully affect the ways they study and learn.
  14. Learners need feedback on their learning, early and often, to learn well; to become independent learners, they need to become self-assessing and self-corecting.

Everyone can agree or disagree and give it a thought!