I digged out the old workshop material in June 7, 1994, an extract from Thomas A. Angelo “A Teacher’s Dozen", Fourteen General Research-Based Principles for Improving Higher Learning In Our Classrooms" AAHE Bulletin 45(8), 3-8, April 1993. It was initiated by Jim Mellan. It is worth sharing these.
- Active learning is more important than passive learning.
- Learning is more effective and efficient when learners have explicit, reasonable goals, and when their goals fit well with the teacher’s goals.
- Learning requires focused attention and awareness of the importance of what is to be learned.
- To be remembered, new information must be meaningfully connected to prior knowledge, and it must first be remembered in order to be learned.
- Unlearning what is already known is often more difficult than learning new information.
- Information that is organized is personally meaningful ways is more likely to be remembered, learned, and used.
- Mastering a complex skill or body of knowledge takes great amounts of time and effort.
- Learning to transfer – to apply prior knowledge and skills to new contexts – requires a great deal of directed practice.
- High expectations encourage high achievement.
- To be most effective, teachers need to balance levels of intellectual challenge and instructional support.
- Motivation to learn is alterable: it can be positively or negatively affected by the task, the environment, the teacher, and the learner.
- Interaction between teachers and learners is one of the most powerful factors in promoting learning; interaction among learners is another.
- The ways in which learners are assessed and evaluated powerfully affect the ways they study and learn.
- Learners need feedback on their learning, early and often, to learn well; to become independent learners, they need to become self-assessing and self-corecting.
Everyone can agree or disagree and give it a thought!